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late 19th century


German psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing claims to have performed "conversion therapy" on a gay man by hypnosis and forcing him to have sex with the opposite sex.

A brief history of "torsion therapy"

Early 20th Century


Discussions on the pathological harm of homosexuality appear in Chinese folk newspapers.


In Europe and the United States, the dangerous ice-pick therapy is used to perform twist therapy on homosexuals.


Discussions of treatments for homosexuality appear in Chinese folk newspapers.

mid 20th century


Sexual minorities in mainland China sufferClass education and reform through labor.

Gender/gender minority depathogenesis process


The American Psychiatric Association removes the "homosexuality is a mental illness" diagnosis.

late 20th century


Six homosexuals were treated with electric shocks in outpatient clinics at the Institute of Mental Health of Beijing Medical University.


The CCMD-2 lists homosexuality as a "psychological disorder", officially pathologized in mainland China.


The Psychological Clinic of Wannan Medical College performed "reversal therapy" on a gay man through cognitive psychotherapy and medication.


The Shanghai Psychological Counseling Center performed "reversal therapy" on two homosexuals through cognitive behavioral therapy.


Henan Province Mental Hospital performed "reversal therapy" on three homosexuals with electric shocks, injections of apomorphine hydrochloride and psychotherapy.


Lanzhou Third People's Hospital ordered a gay man to take clomipramine for "conversion therapy".


The Department of Psychology of South China Normal University used hypnotic electric shocks to perform "reversal therapy" on three homosexuals.


ICD-10 no longer lists homosexuality as a mental disorder, and homosexuality is not a disease recognized by the international medical community.


Mainland China CCMD-3 revision team was established.


The "Aichi Action Project", a non-governmental non-profit organization, has launched a series of activities to contact and lobby members of the CCMD-3 working group and domestic experts in the field of mental health, in an attempt to promote the de-pathologization of homosexuality in China.

Liu Huaqing of Beijing Huilongguan Hospital began to contact the homosexual population in Beijing, collect samples for psychological tests, and study whether homosexuality should be de-pathological.


The "North American Chinese Gender and Sexual Orientation Research Association" was established with the purpose of promoting the non-pathological problem of homosexuality in the Chinese psychiatry community, and the online magazine "Peach Red All over the World".


There is a debate in China's mental health field about whether homosexuality should be depathologized,Mental Health Letters published a total of 20 articles that advocated pathologization and advocated depathologization in this discussion.



A survey conducted on the "Sino-German Continuous Training Program for Senior Psychotherapists" showed that Chinese psychologists and psychiatrists have negative and negative attitudes towards homosexuality, reflecting the difficulty of depathologizing homosexuality in CCMD-3.

early 21st century


The Psychological Clinic of Anshan Central Hospital accepts 16 homosexuals for counseling and performs "reversal therapy" on them.


The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University used rubber bands to flick their wrists, light hypnosis, and psychotherapy, vowing to perform "torsion therapy" on three homosexuals.


Yang Yongxin's Linyi Internet Rehabilitation Center was exposed, after a large number of gay teenagers were subjected to electric shock "reversal therapy" at the closed management center.


Twenty-three homosexual college students in Jiangxi Province received "reversal therapy" by doctors from Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The methods were aversive behavior therapy and cognitive therapy.


Published by Beijing LGBT Center"A survey report on mental health and psychological counseling practitioners' attitudes towards sexual minorities"According to the survey, 36.2% of the 996 mental health and psychological counselors who participated in the survey expressed support for conversion therapy, and 73 explicitly stated that they had undergone "conversion therapy" for homosexuals.


Transgender girl Huang Xiaodi was sent by her parents to a closed institution in Chongqing for "torsion therapy".


Transgender girl Xiao Zhu was forcibly taken by her mother to a private hospital in Shandong for "conversion therapy".


Transgender girl Kecheng was sent by her parents to a closed institution in Jinan for "torsion therapy."



CCMD-3 was released, homosexuality was depathologized in mainland China, but "self-disharmonious" homosexuality was still reserved as a mental illness.


The second statement questioned the retention of "self-discordant homosexuality" in CCMD-3.


The Montreal Declaration is promulgated, and May 17 is designated as the International Day Against Homophobia.


Xiao Zhen complained that "Xin Yu Piaoxiang Psychological Counseling Center" conducted "Homosexual Correction Treatment"The case was won, becoming the first homosexual "conversion therapy" infringement case in mainland China.



Yu Hu, a gay man, won the case against "conversion therapy" at the Zhumadian City Mental Hospital in Henan Province.


Sisi appeals to textbook publishers and book-selling platforms with pathological homosexual content, known as"The Homophobic Textbook Case".



Wu Laobai and Lin He launched the "Lovers" performance art project, touring cities in China in three red vans carrying three billboards to protest the pathologization of homosexuality and "reversal therapy".


Against Sexual Orientation Reversal Therapy, China Red Truck Defends LGBT.


ICD-11 no longer classifies gender incongruity (transgender) as a mental disorder, and transgender depathologizes.



The "homophobia textbook case" opened, and the plaintiff Sixi lost the case.

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